Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon

Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon

Author Benzecry, Silvana Gomes Google Scholar
Alexandre, Marcia Almeida Google Scholar
Vitor-Silva, Sheila Google Scholar
Salinas, Jorge Luis Google Scholar
de Melo, Gisely Cardoso Google Scholar
Marinho, Helyde Albuquerque Google Scholar
Paes, Angela Tavares Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
de Siqueira, Andre Machado Google Scholar
Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo Google Scholar
Guimaraes Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Google Scholar
Leite, Heitor Pons Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010) and one year later (May 2011). Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3-6.6), mostly males (60.0%) and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%). Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80%) had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19];zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]). Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels. Conclusion Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies targeting larger populations to assess micronutrients levels in P. vivax endemic areas are warranted in order to validate these results.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-coverage San Francisco
Language English
Sponsor Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM)
Fundacio Cellex
Grant number Fundacio Cellex: 483758/2009-4
Fundacio Cellex: G64334048/2007
Date 2016
Published in Plos One. San Francisco, v. 11, n. 3, p. -, 2016.
ISSN 1932-6203 (Sherpa/Romeo, impact factor)
Publisher Public Library Science
Extent -
Origin http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151019
Access rights Open access Open Access
Type Article
Web of Science ID WOS:000371993000091
URI https://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/57796

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